Learn How to Build a Partition Wall
Building a partition wall is an easy way to divide a large space or redirect traffic through a room. By definition, a partition wall is a non-load-bearing interior wall that is designed to support only the materials of the wall itself; it does not support the ceiling or floor above. A partition wall typically connects to the floor below and to the ceiling joists or floor joists that make up the ceiling above. Because the floor and ceiling are already in place, it's usually easiest to build the partition wall piece by piece, rather than building it on the floor and tipping it up into position, as is done with new home construction.
Partition Wall Components
A partition wall typically has vertical studs connected to two horizontal plates—a top plate and bottom plate. The plates are fastened to the floor and ceiling. While the bottom plate can fasten to any part of a wood subfloor (the plywood or particleboard layer under the finish flooring), the top plate must be anchored into the ceiling or floor joists. This is easiest when the wall runs perpendicular (or at an angle) to the joists. If the wall is parallel to the joists, the top plate should be aligned under a joist, or you must install blocking between two joists and fasten the top plate to the blocking.
If the wall includes an opening, with or without a door, the wall will get a horizontal header spanning across the top of the opening, plus two studs at each side of the opening to support the header and define the sides of the opening.
Cutting and Marking the Plates
Start the wall framing by cutting the top plate and bottom plate to the full length of the wall. Hold the plates together to mark the stud layout. Most walls have studs spaced 16 inches "on center" (measuring from the center of one stud to the center of the next). Partition walls also can be framed with studs at 24 inches on center if desired. Mark the stud locations on one side edge of both plates, including any openings.
Installing the Plates
Using a chalk line, mark on the floor where the bottom plate will be installed. Screw the bottom plate to the subfloor with wood screws. Use a straight 2x4 and a level to position the top plate directly above the bottom plate, or use a plumb bob to position the top plate. Install the top plate by screwing into the ceiling or floor joists (or blocking) above. Do not fasten the bottom plate where there will be openings.
Installing the Studs
Due to ordinary house settling, it's unlikely that the bottom and top plates will be perfectly parallel, so you probably can't cut all of the studs to the same length. Instead, measure between the plates at each stud location and cut a stud to fit. Install the studs by toenailing—nailing or screwing at an angle—through each side edge of the stud and into the plate.
Openings for doors typically are 1 inch wider and 1/2 inch taller than the actual dimensions of the door unit (the door and its frame, not the door itself). At each side of an opening, install a full-length king stud at the outside, followed by a shorter trimmer stud (or jack stud) on the inside of the opening. Install a horizontal header on top of the two trimmer studs, then install short cripple studs between the header and the top plate to continue the general stud layout of the wall.
After the last studs are installed, cut out the bottom plate inside any openings. The wall is then ready for drywall or other surface materials.