
01Calculate the Company's Current Ratio
The first step in liquidity analysis is to calculate the company's current ratio. The current ratio shows how many times over the firm can pay its current debt obligations based on its assets. The formula is:
Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities.
In the balance sheet, you can see the highlighted numbers. Those are the ones you use for the calculation. For 2018, the calculation would be:
Current Ratio = $708/$540 = 1.311 X
This means that the firm can meet its current shortterm debt obligations 1.311 times over. In order to stay solvent, the firm must have a current ratio of at least 1.0 X, which means it can exactly meet its current debt obligations. So, this firm is solvent.
However, in this case, the firm is a little more liquid than that. It can meet its current debt obligations and have a little left over. If you calculate the current ratio for 2017, you will see that the current ratio was 1.182 X. So, the firm improved its liquidity in 2018 which, in this case, is good as it is operating with relatively low liquidity.

02Calculate the Company's Quick Ratio or Acid Test
The second step in liquidity analysis is to calculate the company's quick ratio or acid test. The quick ratio is a more stringent test of liquidity than the current ratio. It looks at how well the company can meet its shortterm debt obligations without having to sell any of its inventory to do so.
Inventory is the least liquid of all the current assets because you have to find a buyer for your inventory. Finding a buyer, especially in a slow economy, is not always possible. Therefore, firms want to be able to meet their shortterm debt obligations without having to rely on selling inventory. The formula is:
Quick Ratio = Current AssetsInventory/Current Liabilities.
In the balance sheet, you can see the highlighted numbers. Those are the ones you use for the calculation. For 2018, the calculation would be:
Quick Ratio = $708$422/$540 = 0.529 X.
This means that the firm cannot meet its current shortterm debt obligations without selling inventory because the quick ratio is 0.529 X, which is less than 1.0 X. In order to stay solvent and pay its shortterm debt without selling inventory, the quick ratio must be at least 1.0 X, which it is not.
However, in this case, the firm will have to sell inventory to pay its shortterm debt. If you calculate the quick ratio for 2017, you will see that it was 0.458 X. So, the firm improved its liquidity by 2018 which, in this case, is good, as it is operating with relatively low liquidity. It needs to improve its quick ratio to above 1.0 X so it won't have to sell inventory to meet its shortterm debt obligations.

03Calculate the Company's Net Working Capital
A company's net working capital is the difference between its current assets and current liabilities:
Net Working Capital = Current Assets  Current Liabilities
For 2018, this company's net working capital would be:
$708  540 = $168
From this calculation, you know you have positive net working capital with which to pay shortterm debt obligations before you even calculate the current ratio. You should be able to see the relationship between the company's net working capital and its current ratio.
For 2017, the company's net working capital was $99, so its net working capital position, and, thus, its liquidity position, has improved from 2017 to 2018.

04Summary of Liquidity Analysis
In this example, you performed a simple analysis of a firm's current ratio, quick ratio, and net working capital. These are the key components of a basic liquidity analysis for a business. More complex liquidity and cash analysis can be done for companies, but this simple liquidity analysis will get you started.
Looking at this summary, the company improved its liquidity position from 2017 to 2018, as indicated by all three metrics. The current ratio and the net working capital positions both improved. The quick ratio shows that the company has to sell inventory to meet its current debt obligations, but the quick ratio is also improving.
For a true analysis of this firm, it also is important to examine data for this firm's industry. Although it's helpful to have two years of data for the firm, which provides information on the trend in the ratios, it is also important to compare the firm's ratios with the industry.
Analysis of Liquidity Position Using Financial Ratios
A balance sheet is provided as an example for calculating a company's financial position by measuring its liquidity, which is the ability to pay its current debt with its current assets. The information reflects two years of data for a hypothetical company.
The balance sheet data will also be used to calculate the current and quick ratios, and net working capital and provide an explanation of each as well as the meaning of changes from year to year. The results can be replicated for your own firm.