What Is Net of Tax?
Net of Tax is a business term that takes into account the estimated tax on a business or investment transaction. At its simplest, the net of tax is calculated by considering the gross income from a transaction and subtracting the tax paid on that income. Net of tax is also sometimes referred to as "after-tax" and other times as "purchasing power," since the tax reduces the amount you are able to use for spending.
How Does Net of Tax Work?
Any business or investment transaction that involves income should be considered as net of tax. The net of tax calculation is different depending on the type of income:
- Ordinary or earned income for a business is income from your business activities, like sales of products and services.
- Capital gains income is the profit from the sale of business assets (everything from vehicles and equipment to the entire business) or investments, meaning that the asset is sold for more than the price paid for it.
At its simplest, for example, if you earn $50,000 a year as a freelance business owner, you must pay income tax on that income. Since you are a business owner, you don't have payroll tax withholding. You must pay estimated taxes throughout the year. Including the cost of income taxes and self-employment taxes on your income can show you your true income for the year.
How Is Net of Tax Calculated?
Net of tax is calculated differently depending on whether your income is ordinary income or income from capital gains. Let's look at ordinary income first:
For a business, ordinary income that is subject to tax is net income (profit); you get net income by subtracting expenses from income. Your net income from your business in the example above is $50,000. To get the net of tax calculation you must subtract the taxes due on that income: income tax and self-employment tax (Social Security and Medicare).
Your income tax rate is set by your total income for the year minus deductions and exemptions. For the sake of simplicity, let's say this business income is your only income; your tax rate on this income would be 25%, based on the tax rate for that level of income. and your filing status. So your net of tax income is $37,500. (Self-employment tax (Social Security/Medicare tax for self-employed individuals) has been left out of the calculation).
How Does Net of Tax Work for Capital Gains?
The most common use of the net of tax strategy is in the sale of business assets that result in capital gains. The capital gains tax rate depends on several factors:
- The basis (cost) of the asset when you bought it and the amount it is worth when you sell it.
- How long the asset has been held before sale. Capital gains/losses are classified as long-term if you have held it for more than a year, or short-term if you held it one year or less.
- Your taxable income, at 15% for taxpayers with taxable income of $78,750 or more, and 20% above certain income limits, depending on filing status (single, married filing jointly, etc.).
There are also different capital gains tax rates for real estate, stocks and bonds, collectibles, and other types of assets.
A quick example of how net of tax is calculated: You bought stock for $100,000 two years ago, and you can sell it now at $120,000. The $20,000 gain is subject to capital gains tax. If your tax rate is 24% you will only receive $15,200 net of tax.
How Does Net of Tax Work for the Sale of a Business?
If you are considering selling your business, including a net of tax calculation into your discussions can save you a lot on your tax bill.
When you sell a business, you will probably have different assets (like real property, shares of stock, etc.), and each might have a different capital gain or less. Each asset must be treated as being sold separately for determining capital gain or loss.
How you categorize certain parts of the sale price can mean lower taxes. Spreading out the payments on the sale can also spread out the taxes over several years.
There may be other strategies you can use to minimize the tax effect of your business sale. Before you begin negotiations, get a tax professional who can help you with this complicated calculation.
Net of Tax vs. Net Income
The term "net of tax" is used primarily for specific transactions, like the purchase of a building or a group of vehicles. Net of tax applies to both individuals and businesses. Net income for a business is income minus all expenses, including taxes for a specific period of time.
For example, net income for a sole proprietor is the "net profit or loss" on Line 31 of Schedule C.
Why Is Doing a Net of Tax Calculation Important?
Let's say you are trying to decide whether to sell some business assets. You aren't sure whether to sell this year or next. Doing a net of tax calculation for both years can show you which year might be the best, giving you the lower tax effect.
Net of tax calculations is also helpful because they allow you to look at different ways to reduce your taxes. For example, you may want to sell some investments, but you want to pay the least possible tax. Some of the investments may be in stocks and bonds, while some might be in IRAs. Considering the net of tax amount on a transaction can help you decide which are the best investments to sell and the best time.
Whether you are a small business owner or an investor, net of tax calculations are a useful tax planning tool. Talk to your tax professional about using these calculations to cut your tax bill.