The 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, required that by February 3rd, 2009, 50% of all cargo carried on passenger aircraft in the United States had to go through a security screening.
Since October 2008, the Transportation Safety Administration (TSA) has required 100% screening for all cargo carried on narrow-bodied passenger planes, which accounts for 95% of all flights in the US. Since August 2010, the 100% screening requirement has applied to all flights, including flights into the USA.
Certified Cargo Screening Program (CCSP)
To ensure the movement of cargo is not impaired, the TSA developed the Certified Cargo Screening Program (CCSP), a voluntary program designed to move some of the screening processes to shippers, third-party logistics providers (3PLs), air forwarders, and independent screening services.
Those companies that want to take part in this program can apply to operate Certified Cargo Screening Facilities (CCSFs). Cargo screened at a CCSF and then transported through a secure chain of custody will not need to be inspected at the airport, which means no delay in transportation to the customer.
CCSP was being rolled out in a phased approach. The first phase was rolled out with a small group of logistics companies in number cities in 2008, including San Francisco, Chicago, and Philadelphia.
Certified Cargo Screening Facilities (CCSF)
The TSA has approximately 300 companies certified as a CCSF and is adding companies on a regular basis. However, when a CCSF shipper moves it freight to a forwarder, it will have to use a company that has been certified by the TSA.
A key characteristic of the CCSP system is the rigorous tracking of the chain of custody, including the use of tamper-evident technology to assure that after the cargo has been screened, the cargo remains secured in transit to the aircraft.
The airlines will continue to have ultimate responsibility for ensuring that cargo has been screened prior to flight. If the airline decides that they cannot verify that the cargo has been screened, the airline must screen it before allowing it to be transported.
Certified Cargo Screening Facilities must adhere to a set of rules set by the TSA.
- Adhere to the security requirements mandated by the TSA's security program
- Initiate and maintain the integrity of cargo through the chain of custody
- Permit onsite validations and periodic inspections
- Screen cargo at the piece level, i.e. each case must be screened not each pallet
Independent Cargo Screening Facility (ICSF)
For shippers that do not want to become a certified screener, they can achieve pre-screening by using an independent cargo screening facility (ICSF). This is a facility that is owned by one company or several companies that are used by a number of shippers when there are no certified operators in the area.
Issues For CCSP Deployment
The TSA acknowledged that screening the difficult, complex, skidded cargo still has to be overcome. Shipments on narrow-body aircraft, that had to be screened by August 2008, are not skidded. Most wide-body aircraft does operate with skidded cargo.
If cargo increases back to 2007 levels, the capacity required to screen 100% of cargo will have to increase by 300%. If capacity does not increase, there is the distinct possibility of backlogs in screening and delays will occur across the supply chain.
The TSA was concerned that if carriers waited until the final few months to become certified, prior to August 2010, they would not have the administrative resources to certify carriers in a timely fashion. This, in turn, would cause backlogs across the supply chain.
Article updated by Gary Marion